Over 2650 species of armored scale pests exist. Diaspididae is the largest family of scale insects with over 2650 described species in around 400 genera. Armored scales occur in all zoogeographic regions. 51, 49–64.] Abstract The life cycle of Lepidosaphes ulmi was studied in Valdivia, Chile, during 1990-92. Scales hatch from an egg and typically develop through two nymphal instars (growth stages) before maturing into an adult. One of the most stubborn examples of an armored scale is the San Jose scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus. Mus. This species was monovoltine, with hibernation occurring in the egg stage. Mem. Distribution. Vict. Biology of the scale insect Aspidiotus destructor Signoret (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) was studied on mango cultivar Desi at mean temperature of 30°C and relative humidity (RH) 64 % in the laboratory as well as on four mango cultivars in a greenhouse at 25°C and 60 % RH in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. [Partially adapted from Farrell, G. S. (1990). Find a list of species from the Australasian region, Afrotropical region, Nearctic region, Neotropical region, Oriental region, and Palaearctic region.

Egg hatching began during the 2nd half of October. Life cycle: Females have two immature instars whereas males have four, including the the prepupa and pupa stages, which remain within the exuvium (velum) secreted by the second instar.
LIFE CYCLE. As with all scale insects, the female produces a waxy protective scale beneath which it feeds on its host plant. The female lays eggs or (seldom) larviposits first instar larvae (usually called crawlers} beneath its body. Diaspididae Diaspididae or ‘Armored Scale’. Life cycle of Lepidosaphes ulmi (L.) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).

Each instar can change greatly as it ages, so many scales appear to have more than two growth stages. Source: Mollivan Jon. Needless to say, these scales have an armor-like coating which they use to protect themselves from predators or insecticidal sprays. The crawlers bear three pairs of legs and antennae and are the only agents of dispersal. The life cycle of the Australian Acacia-feeding mealybug Melanococcus albizziae (Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

Diaspididae Targioni Tozzetti was first used as a family by Brues and Melander (1932).

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